Wednesday, 29 May 2013

Product Lifecycle


To make the target market aware of the new product it is important to heavily promote it. A special introductory price may help push the product. The product is new to the mark and it takes some time after introduction for the product to become popular. 


As sales and profitability increase, the selling price may be reduced to make the product more attractive. Continued advertising around the brand name will help to sustain sales. The marketing team may consider expanding its distribution, to reach more consumers. Interest grows, it is new and popular and many units are sold, these sales grow until they reach a peak.


The product has reached a stage were no new interest can be generated. The sales level of and profit is consistent as their is still a demand for the product. 


The product has lost it's novelty, fashion or it's seasonal appeal (common with products like Christmas cards) and sales began to drop as the demand for the product lessons. Sales decrease until the sales are negligible. At this point the product usually is changed or goes out of production. 

Product Lifecycle is most commonly expressed graphically


Companies need to protect their products, ideas and corporate identities. Legal precautions can be taken to protect these. Copyright and patents are taken. getting a product Copyrighted restricts unauthorized copying of your products or designs. A patent protects an idea giving the owner the sole rights to that idea. This idea then receives a registered status. A trade mark protects a slogan, name or logo of a company and stops other's from copying or using it.
Copyright - all rights reserved

registered trademark logo
Trade mark logo

CYMK and Special Colours

CYMK stand for Cyan Magenta Yellow and Black. These are the four printing colors. A combination of all of these different colors creates multiple colors. Black is used to add tone. 
The colors combine for all colors of the visible spectrum
Special Colors can be used industrially for an exact match and higher quality printing. These can be multiple shades and gradients of every color imaginable.

Just in Time Production

With just in time production, a business doesn't store stock and instead relies upon deliveries of raw materials and components to arrive exactly when they are needed. Instead of occasional large deliveries to a warehouse, components arrive just when they are needed and are taken straight to the factory floor.
The benefits of reduced warehouse costs must be balanced against the cost of more frequent deliveries and lost purchasing economies of scale from bulk buying discounts.


In Graphics their are often occasions were the designer will need to produce a scale model or prototype for a client. This is an essential part of the manufacturing process. It allows the client to have an impression of the finished product and based on this they may want to make changes. Additionally prototypes will be needed to show investors. If the prototype is good they will be more likely to invest.

Different types of production

One-Off Production
is when only one product is made at a time. Every product is different so it is labour intensive. Products may be made by hand or a combination of hand and machine methods.
The product cost more to produce but can be sold for a higher price because of it's 'novelty value'

Batch Production
is when a small quantity of identical products are made. Batch production may also be labour intensive, but jigs and templates are used to aid production. Batches of the product can be made as often as required. The machines can be easily changed to produce a batch of a different product.This means that they can ensure they are always creating a product that is desired and has a good market. However whenever  a new products will be made time is wasted on re-configuring the machines.

Mass Production
is when hundreds of identical products are made, usually on a production line. Mass production often involves the sub-assemblie of numerous individual components. Parts may be bought from other companies. There is usually automated tasks and this enables a smaller number of workers to output more products. 

Continuous production
is when many thousands of identical products are made. The difference between this and mass production is that the production line is kept running 24 hours a day, seven days a week to maximise production and eliminate the extra costs of starting and stopping the production process. The process is highly automated and few workers are required. This means the product is normally very cheap to make. This saving is filtered down to consumers and means products produced on a continuous production line are normally cheaper.


EFFORT- force applied
LOAD - the weight the force is acting on
FULCRUM - the pivot

First Class Levers
The fulcrum is between the load and the effort like a pair of scissors.

  • The effort is applied by your hand at one end
  • The load is the resistance against the cutting edge
  • The fulcrum is the screw which holds the two halves together and allows for movement

Second Class Levers
The Load is applied between the effort and the fulcrum. The effort needed is less than the load because it is a lot nearer to the fulcrum.

other examples include nutcrackers

Third Class Levers
The effort is applies between the load and the fulcrum. The effort needed is greater than the load, but the amount of movement is multiplied

This is a simplified version, others include pumping a weight
Convert rotary movement into linear, like a bicycle.

Converts one type of movement into another.
eg/ a rotary cam converts rotary motion to reciprocating motion (up and down).
stage one and two in a simple mechanism
stage 3 and 4
Their are four main types of springs.

  • resist extension
  • resist compression
  • resist radial movement
  • resist twisting

resists radial movement

resists twisting
transfers one mechanical motion to another. Most often used to convert cams to cranks or vice versa. An example is when a metal tool box opens and out pop a load of different levels inside.
one example of the many shapes of linkages.A Push-Pull mechanism

others include;
  • Tongs
  • Moving Wings
  • Push-Pull

Similar to linkages they transfer one motion to another. The teeth of the gear wheels mesh with each other. They can make things go faster or slower and are used on bikes, hand whisks, bottle openers and toys.They can be used in 3D working models.

Chain and Sprocket
Mainly used in bicycles. As the pedals push the chain links with the sprocket and the wheel turns. This what makes it possible to cycle up hill comfortably.
example of graphically created chain and sprocket.

A grooved wheel with a belt running through the groove. The belt stretches making it shock absorbent. They control how fast things run like cassettes and also make lifting heavy weights easier on things such as cranes.

If one wheel is bigger than the other the bigger one rotates more slowly but with more force. A twist in the belt makes the wheels turn in opposite direction.
These can also be digitally created for 3D graphical models.